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proposed by Hersey suggests four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of follower-development. In this model, leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. [51]

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General Petraeus talks with U.S. soldiers serving in Afghanistan

Functional leadership theory (Hackman Walton, 1986; McGrath, 1962; Adair, 1988; Kouzes Posner, 1995) is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion (Fleishman et al., 1991; Hackman Wageman, 2005; Hackman Walton, 1986). While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership (Zaccaro, Rittman, Marks, 2001), it has also been effectively applied to broader organizational leadership as well (Zaccaro, 2001). In summarizing literature on functional leadership (see Kozlowski et al. (1996), Zaccaro et al. (2001), Hackman and Walton (1986), Hackman Wageman (2005), Morgeson (2005)), Klein, Zeigert, Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five broad functions a leader performs when promoting organization's effectiveness. These functions include environmental monitoring, organizing subordinate activities, teaching and coaching subordinates, motivating others, and intervening actively in the group's work.

A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors' behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure . Consideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards.

Main article: Three Levels of Leadership model

The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the older theories (i.e. traits, behavioral/styles, situational and functional) while addressing their limitations, largely by introducing a new element – the need for leaders to develop their leadership presence, attitude toward others and behavioral flexibility by practicing psychological mastery. It also offers a foundation for leaders wanting to apply the philosophies of Womens Trousers Rifle VGKUpheOiF
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. [52]

Erlang Reference Manual

User's Guide

Version 10.0

Chapters

Erlang is designed for massive concurrency. Erlang processes are lightweight (grow and shrink dynamically) with small memory footprint, fast to create and terminate, and the scheduling overhead is low.

A process is created by calling spawn :

spawn creates a new process and returns the pid.

The new process starts executing in Module:Name(Arg1,...,ArgN) where the arguments are the elements of the (possible empty) Args argument list.

There exist a number of other spawn BIFs, for example, spawn/4 for spawning a process at another node.

Besides addressing a process by using its pid, there are also BIFs for registering a process under a name. The name must be an atom and is automatically unregistered if the process terminates:

Table 12.1: Name Registration BIFs

When a process terminates, it always terminates with an exit reason . The reason can be any term.

exit reason

A process is said to terminate normally , if the exit reason is the atom normal . A process with no more code to execute terminates normally.

normally

A process terminates with an exit reason {Reason,Stack} when a run-time error occurs. See Exit Reasons .

A process can terminate itself by calling one of the following BIFs:

The process then terminates with reason Reason for exit/1 or {Reason,Stack} for the others.

A process can also be terminated if it receives an exit signal with another exit reason than normal , see Error Handling .

Processes communicate by sending and receiving messages. Messages are sent by using the send operator ! and received by calling receive .

Message sending is asynchronous and safe, the message is guaranteed to eventually reach the recipient, provided that the recipient exists.

Two processes can be linked to each other. A link between two processes Pid1 and Pid2 is created by Pid1 calling the BIF link(Pid2) (or conversely). There also exist a number of spawn_link BIFs, which spawn and link to a process in one operation.

linked

Links are bidirectional and there can only be one link between two processes. Repeated calls to link(Pid) have no effect.

A link can be removed by calling the BIF unlink(Pid) .

Links are used to monitor the behaviour of other processes, see Error Handling .

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Filed to: surveillance

Microsoft’s president and chief legal officer, Brad Smith, called for federal regulation of face recognition in a new blog post on Friday. Womens Novy Heels Sandals Black 5 M US FitFlop RQTvAckZxt
already have their face in a federal database, andvendors are supplying face recognition technology to schools, airports, and baseball stadiums. Federal regulation could help meetnumerous privacy concerns while also giving the public a voice in the tech’s advancement, he argues.

Smith calls for federal regulation because, in our currently unregulated state, leaving individual companies to make ethical decisions on face recognition “is an inadequate substitute for decision making by the public and its representatives in a democratic republic.”

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“We live in a nation of laws, and the government needs to play an important role in regulating facial recognition technology,” Smith writes. “As a general principle, it seems more sensible to ask an elected government to regulate companies than to ask unelected companies to regulate such a government.”

Smith urges congress to convene a bipartisan commission of experts to essentially create a homegrown version of the , a regulatory framework that balances both the potential of face recognition with the need to prevent misuses. “This should build on recent work by academics and in the public and private sectors to assess these issues and to develop clearer ethical principles for this technology,” he writes.

The statement continues by prompting readers to consider whether we should press the government to install varying regulatory measures advanced by privacy experts. It’s widely know that face recognition software can be buggy and inaccurate on darker skinned people. Smithraised the question of a federal law defining a minimum performance level on accurate identifications, banning face recognition software with unacceptably high mis-identification rates. Another possibility: requiring police agencies to post public notices anywhere face recognition is used on the public. This would apply to retailers as well, who have quietly sought patents to identify shoppers and match them with details on their preferences.

“It may seem unusual for a company to ask for government regulation of its products, but there are many markets where thoughtful regulation contributes to a healthier dynamic for consumers and producers alike,” Smith writes. Theoretically, setting a minimum benchmark for face recognition accuracy would push all suppliers to refine the tech, prompting fewer false positives. If shoppers are informed which stores use face recognition, they could avoid those locations, sending a clear message to companies on whether they consent to the practice.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of IBM.
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